Glossary of Typical Lighting Terms

AMPERE : The standard unit of measurement for electric current that is equal to one coulomb per second. It defines the quantity of electrons moving past a given point in a circuit during a specific period. Amp is an abbreviation.

BAFFLE : A single opaque or translucent element used to control light distribution at certain angles.

BALLAST: A device used to operate fluorescent and HID lamps. The ballast provides the necessary starting voltage, while limiting and regulating the lamp current during operation.

BALLAST CYCLING : Undesirable condition under which the ballast turns lamps on and off (cycles) due to the overheating of the thermal switch inside the ballast. This may be due to incorrect lamps, improper voltage being supplied, high ambient temperature around the fixture, or the early stage of ballast failure.

CANDELA: Unit of luminous intensity, describing the intensity of a light source in a specific direction.

CANDLEPOWER: A measure of luminous intensity of a light source in a specific direction, measured in candelas (see above).

COLOR RENDERING INDEX (CRI): A scale of the effect of a light source on the color appearance of an object compared to its color appearance under a reference light source. Expressed on a scale of 1 to 100, where 100 indicates no color shift. A low CRI rating suggests that the colors of objects will appear unnatural under that particular light source.

COLOR TEMPERATURE : The color temperature is a specification of the color appearance of a light source, relating the color to a reference source heated to a particular temperature, measured by the thermal unit Kelvin. The measurement can also be described as the "warmth" or "coolness" of a light source. Generally, sources below 3200K are considered "warm;" while those above 4000K are considered "cool" sources.

COMPACT FLUORESCENT : A small fluorescent lamp that is often used as an alternative to incandescent lighting. The lamp life is about 10 times longer than incandescent lamps and is 3-4 times more efficacious. Also called PL, Twin-Tube, CFL, or BIAX lamps.

CONTRAST: The relationship between the luminance of an object and its background.

CUT-OFF ANGLE : The angle from a fixture's vertical axis at which a reflector, louver, or other shielding device cuts off direct visibility of a lamp. It is the complementary angle of the shielding angle.

DIFFUSE : Term describing dispersed light distribution. Refers to the scattering or softening of light.

DIFFUSER: A translucent piece of glass or plastic sheet that shields the light source in a fixture. The light transmitted throughout the diffuser will be redirected and scattered.

DOWNLIGHT : A type of ceiling luminaire, usually fully recessed, where most of the light is directed downward. May feature an open reflector and/or shielding device.

EFFICACY : A metric used to compare light output to energy consumption. Efficacy is measured in lumens per watt. Efficacy is similar to efficiency, but is expressed in dissimilar units. For example, if a 100-watt source produces 9000 lumens, then the efficacy is 90 lumens per watt.

EMI: Abbreviation for electromagnetic interference. High frequency interference (electrical noise) caused by electronic components or fluorescent lamps that interferes with the operation of electrical equipment. EMI is measured in micro-volts, and can be controlled by filters

ENERGY-SAVING LAMP : A lower wattage lamp, generally producing fewer lumens.

FLUORESCENT LAMP : A light source consisting of a tube filled with argon, along with krypton or other inert gas. When electrical current is applied, the resulting arc emits ultraviolet radiation that excites the phosphors inside the lamp wall, causing them to radiate visible light.

GLARE: The effect of brightness or differences in brightness within the visual field sufficiently high to cause annoyance, discomfort or loss of visual performance.

HALOGEN: (SEE TUNGSTEN HALOGEN LAMP)

HID: Abbreviation for high intensity discharge. Generic term describing mercury vapor, metal halide, high pressure sodium, and (informally) low pressure sodium light sources and luminaires.

HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM LAMP : A high intensity discharge (HID) lamp whose light is produced by radiation from sodium vapor (and mercury).

ILLUMINANCE : A photometric term that quantifies light incident on a surface or plane. Illuminance is commonly called light level. It is expressed as lumens per square foot (footcandles), or lumens per square meter (lux).

INDIRECT GLARE : Glare produced from a reflective surface.

LED: Abbreviation for light emitting diode. A new illumination technology which consumes very low wattage compared to traditional bulbs. LED bulbs are rated for a life of greater than 3 years.

LENS : Transparent or translucent medium that alters the directional characteristics of light passing through it. Usually made of glass or acrylic.

LOUVER: Grid type of optical assembly used to control light distribution from a fixture. Can range from small-cell plastic to the large-cell anodized aluminum louvers used in parabolic fluorescent fixtures.

LOW-VOLTAGE LAMP : A lamp ( typically compact halogen ( that provides both intensity and good color rendition. Lamp operates at 12V and requires the use of a transformer.

LUMEN: A unit of light flow, or luminous flux. The lumen rating of a lamp is a measure of the total light output of the lamp.

LUMINAIRE : A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps, along with the parts designed to distribute the light, hold the lamps, and connect the lamps to a power source. Also called a fixture.

LUMINAIRE EFFICIENCY : The ratio of total lumen output of a luminaire and the lumen output of the lamps, expressed as a percentage. For example, if two luminaires use the same lamps, more light will be emitted from the fixture with the higher efficiency.

OPTICS: A term referring to the components of a light fixture (such as reflectors, refractors, lenses, louvers) or to the light emitting or light-controlling performance of a fixture.

RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE (RFI): Interference to the radio frequency band caused by other high frequency equipment or devices in the immediate area. Fluorescent lighting systems generate RFI.

REFLECTOR: The part of a light fixture that shrouds the lamps and redirects some light emitted from the lamp.

SHIELDING ANGLE : The angle measured from the ceiling plane to the line of sight where the bare lamp in a luminaire becomes visible. Higher shielding angles reduce direct glare. It is the complementary angle of the cutoff angle. (See CUTOFF ANGLE).

STARTER: A device used with a ballast to start preheat fluorescent lamps.

TUNGSTEN HALOGEN LAMP : A gas-filled tungsten filament incandescent lamp with a lamp envelope made of quartz to withstand the high temperature. This lamp contains some halogens (namely iodine, chlorine, bromine, and fluorine), which slow the evaporation of the tungsten. Also, commonly called a quartz lamp.

ULTRA VIOLET (UV): Invisible radiation that is shorter in wavelength and higher in frequency than visible violet light (literally beyond the violet light).

VOLT: The standard unit of measurement for electrical potential. It defines the "force" or "pressure" of electricity.

VOLTAGE: The difference in electrical potential between two points of an electrical circuit.

WATT (W): The unit for measuring electrical power. It defines the rate of energy consumption by an electrical device when it is in operation. The energy cost of operating an electrical device is calculated as its wattage times the hours of use. In single phase circuits, it is related to volts and amps by the formula: Volts x Amps x PF = Watts. (Note: For AC circuits, PF must be included.)

ZENITH: The direction directly above the luminaire (180 angle).

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